Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Christopher Baglio

Second Advisor

H. Stanton Tuttle

Third Advisor

Jeffrey S. Williamson

Scholarship Domain(s)

Scholarship of Community Application, Scholarship of Teaching and Learning


Third grade students were administered two universal screening reading measures at the beginning and end of the school year. In an effort to limit the misidentification of reading disabilities (RD) in lower socioeconomic community populations of the school district, local norms were established. The local and national norms were compared using the 10th percentile, or -1.27 Z-score, to identify discrepant scores. A diminished classification of RD was evidenced when local norms were utilized in contrast to the use of national norms. Locally-normed slope scores in conjunction with the benchmark testing scores showed a moderate level of correlation than when compared to the scores or slope coefficients in isolation. The utilization of local norms reduced the number of classifications for RD, but did not consistently identify the children who were diagnosed with a Specific Learning Disability (SLD). The identification of statistically significant discrepancies of the Progress Monitoring (PM) scores provided support in the practice for the assessment of SLD when used jointly with slope scores. Overall, the use of Z-scores offered a reliable means for the comparison of the various PM measure scores.


Ed.D. dissertation completed in 2015 for Olivet Nazarene University.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.