Document Type

Thesis

First Advisor

Dr. Kristian Veit

Publication Date

5-2022

Scholarship Domain(s)

Scholarship of Discovery

Abstract

Background

Mindfulness is defined as the state of giving full attention to a stimulus, internal or external, without inducing judgment or becoming reactional about the feelings experienced, positive or negative (Davis & Hayes, 2012). Previous studies have investigated the relationship between mindfulness techniques and the reduction of anxiety (Chambers et al., 2008; Macdonald & Olsen, 2020); a smaller number of studies have considered test anxiety (Cho et al., 2016; Sparks, 2017). Prior research has used multiple mindfulness techniques to measure the impact on test anxiety, but few have isolated mindfulness trainings to compare the relative impact of each type on test anxiety. The present study utilized two different types of mindfulness trainings to analyze their impact on test anxiety in comparison with each other and a control group; it was hypothesized that mindfulness would increase, and test anxiety would decrease for students in the experimental conditions. The Fog Rolling In training group was hypothesized to experience greater decreases in test anxiety compared to the Counting Breaths and control group.

Methods

Forty-two individuals from three sections of a gen-ed class participated. Students were asked to participate in the study through the completion of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and a shortened form of the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI—5). Both forms were given to each class before trainings began and again at the end of data collection. In the weeks between measures, a class-specific mindfulness training was presented three times.

Results

Data were analyzed using 2x3 mixed factorial ANOVA. There was a nonsignificant interaction (p = .466), non-significant main effects for mindfulness (p = .501) and test anxiety (p = .611), and non-significant main effect for time (p = .484). Mindfulness and test anxiety variables also failed to reach significance when using a paired-samples ttest to exclude the control group (p = .064; p = .960).

Conclusions

Neither mindfulness nor test anxiety changed after participants were exposed to a mindfulness training. In addition, no significant differences were found between two different forms of mindfulness training and a control group on mindfulness and test anxiety.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Available for download on Thursday, December 01, 2022

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