Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


Scholarship Domain(s)

Scholarship of Discovery


A study using participants (n=61) from a small liberal arts college was conducted to analyze the effect of direct human service on volunteers’ self‐perceived generosity, expected versus actual appreciation, expected versus actual satisfaction in work, and expected versus actual value of work. An experimental group (n=31) was given pre‐ and post‐surveys evaluating these dependent variables using a Likert scale. Between the surveys the experimental group received treatment of direct human service at a free community lunch program. The control group (n=30) was given the same pre‐ and postsurveys without treatment.

It was hypothesized that direct human service would cause a significant decrease in the dependent variables. It was found that there was a significant difference in the reported self‐perception of generosity in the pre‐surveys between the control group (M=15.17) and experimental group (M=16.52), t(59) =‐2.02, pt(59)=‐1.66, p>.05. There was a significant difference in the expected satisfaction between the control (M=15.40) and experimental (M=18.61) groups, t(59) = ‐4.48, pM=16.53) and experimental (M=19.17) groups, t(58) = ‐3.53, pM=10.33) and the experimental group (M=12.29), t(59) = ‐3.91, pM=9.73) and the experimental group (M=12.35), t(59) = ‐4.26, p


Honors Capstone Project completed in 2014 for Olivet Nazarene University.